Pumapunku or Puma Punku is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, in western Bolivia. It is believed to date to 536AD and later. Since the radiocarbon date came from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill underlying the andesite and sandstone.

  1. An extensive had been developed, including a complex that extended more than 30 square miles (80 km 2) to support cultivation of potatoes, corn and other various crops.
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  3. Archaeologists argue that the transport of these stones was accomplished by the large of ancient Tiwanaku.
  4. Archaeologists have used a variety of analytical techniques on the materials that ancient peoples procured.
  5. At its peak the Tiwanaku culture dominated the entire Lake Titicaca basin as well as portions of Bolivia and Chile.
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    This terrace is paved with multiple enormous stone blocks. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Throughout his life he has also had an active interest in the sciences and the study of mythology and religious belief. Tiwanaku is significant in traditions because it is believed to be the site where the world was created. Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca.

    Finally, they consider our views of aliens and the strong cultural signals that provide the shapes and behaviors of these beings. He is the religion editor for Skeptic Magazine. His intentions are to write. How'd they lift that stone? However, the blocks do not have the same dimensions, although they are close. I-cramps of unknown composition were used to hold together the massive slabs that formed Pumapunku's four large platforms.

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    Com/books/about/UFOs_Chemtrails_and_Aliens. Current understanding of this complex is limited due to its age, the lack of a written record, and the current deteriorated state of the structures due to treasure hunting, stone mining for building stone and railroad ballast, and natural weathering. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum.

    San Antonio, and Pierce Colleges. Since the radiocarbon date came from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill underlying the and stonework, the stonework must have been constructed sometime after 536–600 AD. Smaller andesite blocks that were used for stone facing and carvings came from quarries within the Copacabana Peninsula about 90 kilometres (56 miles) away from and across Lake Titicaca from the Pumapunku and the rest of the Tiwanaku Site. Stones are made up of granite and diorite.

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    The core of the Pumapunku consists of clay. The eastern edge of the Pumapunku is occupied by what is called the Plataforma Lítica. The fill underlying selected parts of the edge of the Pumapunku consists of river sand and cobbles instead of clay. The geophysical data collected from these surveys and excavations have revealed the presence of numerous man-made structures in the area between the Pumapunku and Kalasasaya complexes. The largest of these stone blocks is 7.

    Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca. To sustain the weight of these massive structures, Tiwanaku architects were meticulous in creating foundations, often fitting stones directly to bedrock or digging precise trenches and carefully filling them with layered sedimentary stones to support large stone blocks. Two of the more common proposals involve the use of skin ropes and the use of ramps and. UFOs, Chemtrails, and Aliens: What Science Says - Donald R.

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    Much of the is characterized by accurately cut rectilinear blocks of such uniformity that they could be interchanged for one another while maintaining a level surface and even joints. Nair, 2000, "On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture:" The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. National Geographic News, Oct. Notable features at Pumapunku are I-shaped architectural cramps, which are composed of a unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy.

    Impossible to cut with the tools used in the period. In Homenaje a María Rostworowski, edited by R. In UFOs, Chemtrails, and Aliens, Donald R. In UFOs, Chemtrails, and Aliens, Donald R. In assembling the walls of Pumapunku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with the surrounding stones. In sharp contrast, the cramps used at the Akapana canal were fashioned by the cold hammering of copper-arsenic-nickel bronze ingots.

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    The testing is going to be carried out at Purdue University in the US, coordinated by Dr. The unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy is also found in metal artifacts within the region between Tiwanaku and San Pedro de Atacama during the late around 600–900. These cramps were used to hold the blocks comprising the walls and bottom of stone-lined canals that drain sunken courts.

    1. "The Construction and Reconstruction of Ritual Space at Tiwanaku, Bolivia: A.
    2. 'In Bolivia, Great Excavations; Tiwanaku Digs Unearthing New History of the New World', The Washington Post.
    3. A Comparison of Tiahuanaco and Inca Cut-Stone Masonry: The.
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    5. Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia.
    6. The second largest stone block found within the Pumapunku is 7. The show supports the ancient astronaut. The spiritual significance and the sense of wonder would have been amplified into a "mind-altering and life-changing experience" through the use of plants.

      Puma Punku - traces of advanced technology in ancient ruins. Puma Punku is thought to have been abandoned before it was finished. Puma Punku was a large earthen platform mound with three levels of stone. Pumapunku or Puma Punku (and puma, puma, punku door, Hispanicized Puma Puncu) is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Site near Tiwanaku, in western.

      Employing the ground rules of science and the standards of scientific evidence, Prothero and Callahan discuss a wide range of topics including the reliability of eyewitness testimony, psychological research into why people want to believe in aliens and UFOs, and the role conspiratorial thinking plays in UFO culture. En Arqueología, antropología e historia en los Andes. Enduring Mystery Surrounds the Ancient Site of Puma Punku.

      Com - ​Over the millennia, from stone tools among early foragers to clays to prized metals and mineral pigments used by later groups, mineral resources have had a pronounced role in the Andean world. Com/books/about/DECODING_GOD_PUZZLE. Com/books/about/Disinformation_Guide_to_Ancient_Aliens_L. Com/books/about/The_Word_of_Gnosis.

      The amazing alignment of the pyramids. The blocks were fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar. The blocks were so precisely cut as to suggest the possibility of prefabrication and, technologies far in advance of the Tiwanaku’s Inca successors hundreds of years later.

      • The area within the kilometer separating the Pumapunku and complexes has been surveyed using, induced, and.
      • Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, Bochum, Germany.
      • These I-shaped cramps were also used on a section of canal found at the base of the pyramid at Tiwanaku.
      • ' In Metallurgica Andina: In Honour of Hans-Gert Bachmann and Robert Maddin, edited by T.

      These excavation trenches also demonstrated the lack of any pre-Andean cultural deposits within the area of the Tiwanaku Site adjacent to the Pumapunku complex. These structures include the wall foundations of buildings and compounds, water conduits, pool-like features, terraces, residential compounds, and widespread gravel pavements, all of which now lie buried and hidden beneath the modern ground’s surface.

      Based upon the of the red from which it was carved, this stone slab has been estimated to weigh 131.Blom, 2007 Urban Structure at Tiwanaku: Geophysical Investigations in the Andean Altiplano.Both of these stone blocks are part of the Plataforma Lítica and composed of red.

      This area was believed to have existed between heaven and Earth. This layer was deposited during the first of three construction epochs and dates the initial construction of the Pumapunku to 536–600 AD (1510 ±25 C14, calibrated date). This page was last edited on 30 August 2017, at 22:44. This structure consists of a stone terrace that is 6.

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      Unable to produce the massive crop yields necessary for their large population, the Tiwanaku are argued to have scattered into the local, only to disappear shortly thereafter. Was the Ark of the Covenant a mechanical device? Were there survivors of an Atlantean catastrophe? Where did "modern" civilization begin?

      Based upon detailed and chemical analyses of samples from both individual stones and known quarry sites, archaeologists concluded that these and other red sandstone blocks were transported up a steep incline from a quarry near roughly 10 kilometres (6.

      Its layout is thought to have resembled a square. Its weight has been estimated to be 85. Many of the joints are so precise that not even a razor blade will fit between the stones. Meters thick, and is estimated to weigh about 131 metric tons. Metres (383 feet) long along its east–west axis. Metres (6 feet 1 inch) thick. Mining and Quarrying in the Ancient Andes: Sociopolitical, Economic, and.

      On the northeast and southeast corners of the Pumapunku, it has 20-metre (66-foot) wide projections that extend 27. One common engineering technique involves cutting the top of the lower stone at a certain angle, and placing another stone on top of it which was cut at the same angle. Origins of the Yeti, Nessie, and Other Famous Cryptids. Please email if you believe this is an error.

      Examinations of hair samples exhibit remnants of psychoactive substances in many found in Tiwanaku culture from Northern Chile, even those of babies as young as one year of age, demonstrating the importance of these substances to the Tiwanaku. Excavations at the Pumapunku have documented "three major building epochs, in addition to small repairs and remodeling". Feet) wide along its north–south axis and 116. Feet) wide and averages 1.

      Ceramic artifacts depict imagery of warriors, masked with puma skulls, decapitating their enemies and holding trophy skulls, and adorned with belts of human heads with their tongues torn out. Click here to join me in 2014 on tours to Gobekli Tepe in Turkey in May/June with Andrew Collins - plus Peru and Bolivia, with authors Freddy Silva and Hugh Newman in October/November.

      The other stonework and facing of the Pumapunku consists of a mixture of and red sandstone. The paranormal is alive and well in the American cultural landscape. The paranormal is alive and well in the American cultural landscape. The precision with which these angles have been utilized to create flush joints is indicative of a highly sophisticated knowledge of stone-cutting and a thorough understanding of. The remains of dismembered bodies have been found throughout the area.

      Com - IN HIS OWN WORDS: "Mysteries haunting mankind intrigue me the most, and I like writing about them. Com - Mysterious, thought-provoking, and intriguing, The Word of Gnosis: A Light in the Darkness of Universal Forgetfulness is Tait Zinszer's new book that compiles excerpts from various ancient manuscripts that were the foundation of much of the biblical creation and flood stories.

      Strange lines of clouds in the sky. Strange lines of clouds in the sky. Technology and Archaeology Workshop. Terrazas, 1970, Acerca De La Procedencia Del Material Lítico De Los Monumentos De Tiwanaku. The Pumapunku is a terraced earthen mound that is faced with blocks. The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization.

      In the south canal of the Pumapunku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place. In, Puma Punku's name means "The Door of the Puma". Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima. Isbell, professor at, a was obtained by Vranich from organic material from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill forming the Pumapunku. It is believed that, because of certain markings on stones found at Puma Punku, the was originally part of Puma Punku. It is believed to date to 536AD and later.

      They examine a variety of UFO sightings and describe the standards of evidence used to determine whether UFOs are actual alien spacecraft. They were initially pounded by stone hammers, which can still be found in numbers on local andesite quarries, creating depressions, and then slowly ground and polished with flat stones and sand. This area might have been viewed as the center of the Andean world, attracting pilgrims from far away to marvel in its beauty.

      By using this site, you agree to the and. Callahan was trained as an artist and worked for more than 20 years in the animation industry.

      Disinformation Guide to Ancient Aliens, Lost Civilizations, Astonishing. Do myths describe interstellar impact? Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Pennsylvania. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D. Edited by Nicholas Tripcevich, Kevin J. Empires Across the Andes National Geographic.

      Please include your IP address in your email. Prothero and Tim Callahan explore why such demonstrably false beliefs thrive despite decades of education and scientific debunking. Prothero taught college geology and paleontology for 40 years, at Caltech, Columbia, Cal Poly Pomona, and Occidental, Knox, Vassar, Glendale, Mt. Protzen, Jean-Pierre; Stella Nair, 1997, Who Taught the Inca Stonemasons Their Skills? Puma Punku - traces of advanced technology in ancient ruins.

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